LIII INTERNATIONAL MEETING
ON NUCLEAR SPECTROSCOPY AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURE УNUCLEUS-2003Ф,
The
bases of the vortex theory
Russell G. Moon, USA, RJ2Moons@worldnet.att.net
Victor V.
www.thevortextheory.com
1. THE INTRODUCTION
At the basis of this concept - new, and is completely possible the
revolutionary vision of Universe. аIt is named
vortex conception and do promising in its ability to explain some before the
inexplicable phenomena of that Universe. Some thing of them is the decrease of
length and the dilatation of time, which is not detected in the experiment of Michelson
Ц Morley and electronicsТ orbital of atoms of chemical elements tables of D. I.
Mendeleyev.
The base of the vortex theory is a result from fundamental theory of
relativity, the transformations of coordinates in space, and so this questions
basically and is denoted given in the article. The law of sharing the electrons
on orbits of chemical elements is graphically and simply analyses the questions
of construction of atoms.
Because of insufficiency volume of paper are considered, on the first
stage, only levels of electrons, disregarding existence of sublevels, isotopes
of elements, dependencies physical and geometric characteristics of chemical
elements from their designs of nuclei (kernel) and electronic shell. These
questions will are presented in the following work.
Despite the fact, that the special theory of relativity already proposed
the explanation of some of these effects, its answer can be quietly discussed. аThese effects are only external, created by
the specific reason, which it is possible, so it was not known to Albert Einstein
- creator of the theory of relativity.
This striking fact will be proved and it will become obvious at the end
of this work, when it will be shown that the fourth dimension universe,
proposed of Einstein, namely space time - "virus", most critical
possible for the relativity - there does not exist. аHowever, there are additional dimension, but
this is not the substance of time [ 12, p. 403 ]. аThis assertion - not assumption, it is not,
possibly, and only hypothesis.
The fourth dimension cannot correspond to characteristic
"time", because by itself the time does not exist as the fundamental
principle of the Universe. аA time Ц the phenomenon,
created in accordance with the motion and the attribute of the motion.а Therefore it, cannot create, or be the reason
for its own change, connected with the motions at the near-light speeds.
The real reason for the effects of a change in the time will be further
shown. аAnd, perhaps, for the first time,
in the human history, the appearance of the concept, called "time"
will be adequately explained. аFirst,
because the vortex conception will be used in order to explain entire that
mentioned above. аIn the second place, it
will be given the brief analysis of its essential components.
2. BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE
VORTEX CONCEPTION OF THE SPACE
We will consider that there exist in that universe, at least, five
categories (concepts), accessible to our consciousness. аThese five categories:а real physical objects, space, time, energy
and the force of nature.
Physical objects:а the form of matter, which is of the
particles, which we call protons, electrons and so forth, however they are not
particles in the broad sense of this concept. аLet us examine them as the three-dimensional
apertures (hole), which exist on the surface of fourth-dimensional space.а Protons appear by the three-dimensional holes
bent into the fourth-dimensional space, whereas electrons are three-dimensional
holes bent out of fourth dimensional space.
Three-dimensional space flows from the electron into the proton, and maybe
because of this motion in this case strong, electrostatic, weak and
gravitational interactions appear.
A surface always for one dimension is less than the volume, which it
surrounds.а Three-dimensional volume, for
example a ball, is surrounded by two-dimensional surface, i.e. by a sphere.а Therefore fourth-dimensional volume is
surrounded by three-dimensional surface, and fifths-dimensional volume is
surrounded by fourth-dimensional surface. This is not always simple, but
sometimes also it cannot be represented.а
Our three-dimensional universe is not than by other as the surface that
considerably larger universe Ц the Universe, we are unable to see or look
directly into.
Space:а
it generates in the university everything else.а Physical objects, energy even four forces of
nature - completely the substance of space. аDespite the fact that the space is the
multidimensional substance, which includes the specific essence, this
"something" is unknown.
Does consist it of small individual particles?а An answer is probably no.а Why? аAnswer,
perhaps, is caused by the fact that the three-dimensional particles cannot
create three-dimensional holes.а It is
possible that the space could consist of the fourth-dimensional particles, but
also here, nevertheless, such particles cannot create fourth-dimensional holes,
from which the quarks appear to be made of.а
Consequently, any particle must be, at least, fifths-dimensional in
order to further create fourth-dimensional hole.а If these fifths-dimensional particles
existed, then we must know about the fourth-dimensional protons and the
electrons. аFurthermore, since the photons
are also created by space, if space consists of fifths-dimensional particles,
then photons must possess fifths-dimensional motion characteristics
(rotation/revolution, oscillation/vibration, etc.).
Since the space can move in all directions (revolving, pulsating and
being moved along any geometric curve), it can include many uniform, coinciding
material elements, unique from our point of view.а This idea is not return to the theory of
ether.а Since protons and electrons -
three-dimensional holes, there is no ether drift.а Since, these three-dimensional holes are
moved on the space, than space reconstructs itself around them with the speed
of light. Because of this basic difference the vortex conception and the theory
of ether can only superficially be analogous, but, in the essence, they differ
from each other.
Time:а
absolute time is the error, which arose in the limits of the daily
experience of our ancient ancestors.а
Albert Einstein considered that there is no moment of time whatever,
which observer can consider it initial.а
Time by itself does not exist!а
Time depends on a motion; its substance is created with motion and is
necessary only for it.а However, if the
temporary form of existence of universe and possible exists, then
"time" - no!а That a man named
"time", here already thousand years exist as the phenomenon, created
with the hierarchy of synchronous motions.а
This hierarchy of motion depends on the speed of the three-dimensional the
space, which takes place in the vortex, uniting "particles" together.а All other speeds of entire rest in universe are
derivatives of the rate of the vortex.
The energy:а the photons of light are compressed
substances of the three-dimensional space, which move with the speed of the
vortex, which they left.а The compressed
substances of three-dimensional space create the outer effects of photon as
particles, and their expansions and reductions create wave effects.
Four forces of nature:а gravity, electromagnetic force, weak force,
and strong force - they all are created with space.а There is not any individual "parts"
in Universe!а There is only a matter,
which exists in physical universe - in the form of the substance, from which
everything is created.а A space, thus,
consists of material, what is completely unique from our point of view.а It has, at least, five dimensions, and in
this existence it can move in all directions, possess curvature, i.e., to be
convex in any directions and to contain spin characteristics, fractional
electric charges, wave and corpuscular characteristics and so forth. This
substance constantly is in motion.а The motion
occurs in two opposite direction simultaneously: on a massive global scale, it
is enlarged with the enormous speed, carrying along galaxies with itself.а But, on a microscopic scale, it flows back
with the improbable speed!
Both a matter and energy - space.а
The "particles" of the material:а protons, electrons and neutrons (and a number
of other "particles") - not particle generally.а They are the three-dimensional holes, which
exist on the surface of fourth-dimensional space.а The substance (essence) of the space is
created with mutual and opposite, simultaneous and continuous flows from these holes.а The hole creates the effect of particle,
while the denser or less dense substance, which surrounds hole, creates the
effect of wave.
Any substances and energy also has characteristics of solid, liquid and
gaseous state [ 10, p. 12 ].а That we
call energy - simply the denser regions, called the photons, which are enlarged
and are reduced during the motion.а This
dense field (region) or photon creates the effect of particle, while expansion
and reduction during the motion in the space creates the effect of wave.а The concept of time is created in of the universe
by the uniform flow microscopic substance inward and outside from the
three-dimensional holes of matter.а The
massive expansion of three-dimensional substance in entire that universe specifies
its counter flow into the microscopic openings (apertures), what is the reason
for the forces of nature and states of the moving space.
These uniform configurations
distort the spherical surfaces of three-dimensional holes (openings, apertures),
accelerating, their each to other, creating the illusion of force!
3. THE PROOF
Five categories (concepts) of University:а physical objects, space, time, energy and
forces of nature are not completely clearly formulated in 20^{th} century;
however, they are widely used by scientists, engineers and entire society.а They exist to a certain degree in the
consciousness of each in their own way, and, perhaps, they are inadequate in
all us.а There are individual differences
in the idea of these categories.а But
give let us examine this entire completely differently, in a new way, also, in
this case, too without turning over everything upside down.
The objects, which must consist of the specific substance, are not the same.а The space, which, in turn, must be empty
(free), is nevertheless filled and there is nothing without the presence of matter.
The proof is based on the mathematical explanation of a change of the
physical processes in complete agreement with the special theory of
relativity.а And furthermore, will be
given the new interpretation of the experience of Michelson - Morley.
The reason for a change of the length of physical object in the
direction, parallel to its motion, and changes in the rate of flow of time will
be proved on the basis of vortex
conception.
3.1. Determinations and
the concept
Since the new understanding by that universe contains some no stereotype
principles, must be taken into account the following.а In this analysis everything is simplified in
order to avoid unnecessary discussion.а
If we this do not make, then we will lead into error of the reader in
the attempt to lay the idea also of the infinitely small dimensions of atom and
enormous speed of light on it.а In order
to overcome this problem, it is necessary to use basic qualities.а This seemingly substantially will increase
the dimensions of atom in the diameter, and at the same time, will
substantially decrease the speed of light to the value, which can be normally
received.а Since the atom of hydrogen -
simplest of all atoms, and simplest for the understanding, it is the example,
used in the remaining part of this work.а
Nevertheless, one should understand that, similar to hydrogen atom, all
protons and electrons in all atoms are bonded with two vortex flows of
space.а Consequently, the principles,
which use a hydrogen atom as an example, relate also to all other atoms.а In the theory of relativity the space
contains nothing, and all motions occur relative to each other in all practical
observations.а Nevertheless, in the
proposed vortex conception of material space filled (made from something), all
motions in the subatomic world are material, and everything concerning space,
immediately is filled up.
Time - tool of the measurement:а vortex conception will prove that the time
does not exist as the fundamental principle of Universe; however, the
phenomenon of time still can be used as the means of measurement.а Since the hours are used and/or is created
periodic motion, this oscillatory motion is used in order to measure the time
interval between other arbitrary motions.а
Consequently, the use of time in the following formulas does not
contradict the proposed hypothesis.
Closed circuit:а when a proton seizes an electron, then
intra-atomic forces attract these two holes into the specific totality and thus
are formed the atom of hydrogen [ 9, book 5, p. 67 ]. Substance of space, which
forms the locked flow between the proton and the electron, in turn, are formed
two vortex in the matter.а
Three-dimensional volume is such to the whirlpool:а the same three-dimensional space into the
proton elapses from the electron.а Then
whirlpool continues, ensuing from proton into the fourth-dimensional space,
forming another whirlpool, which flows through the fourth-dimensional space
into the electron, completing the cycle of the vortex.а The flow of circulation is accomplished, in
the limits of two vortexes, creating a constant volume and the locked
flow.а However, if atom seizes either
emits the photon - the corpuscle of space, which the volume of the flow of
vortex adds or diminishes, changing the orbit of electron, a constant volume of
atom within the limits of vortices/eddies does not change.а If it would occur on the contrary, then atom
must change the electrostatic charge (i.e. to become ion, and this, as is
known, it occurs during capture or electron emission).а Consequently, in the given volume of
three-dimensional space within the limits of this phenomenon the volume of
vortex remains, regardless of the fact, with what speed the atom is moved.а Since the atomic radius is the length of
vortex, it is the function of the maximum volume of space for the unit of the
measured time, which can ensue from electron into the proton, or from proton
into the electron without the connection or interaction with any other
particle.а Despite the fact that the
electron and proton have different sizes, this does not influence our
calculations.а Differences in the density
of the space, which surrounds each particle, do not influence the volume of the
space, which flows of one particle into another.
3.2. The mathematical
proof
3.2.1. Atomic radius in
the static state
In 1887 A. A. Michelson together with E. W. Morley experimentally
confirmed with the high accuracy the independence of the speed of light from
the velocity of the motion of the Earth, which led to the cheerless and
devastated position in the world of physics.а
This experiment was made, in order to detect the presence of the wind of
ether.а Two collections of mirrors were
installed the right angle to each other.а
Light beam was divided into two rays, by the specially developed mirror,
and then these rays traveled back and forth between two collections of mirrors,
before they converged into the target.а
It was assumed that since the Earth is in motion, the speed of one ray
will be less than the speed of another.а It
is consequently, when they achieved goal, had to arise the interference of
light waves.а However, it was not registered!а
Actually there was no difference whatever in speed of both
rays/beams.а Further experiments were
conducted in the different time of the year, when the speed of the Earth has
different value in orbit around the sun.а
But as before no changes it was established [ 9, book 3, p. 243 ].
This phenomenon is decided to explain H. A. Lorenz and J. F. Fitzgerald.
They, independently of each other, advanced the following hypothesis.а Each of them stated that one of the
possibilities of explaining this uncommon effect, namely the absence of a
change in the time during the motion of the light beams, which repeatedly are
turned between two mirrors, installed perpendicularly and in parallel to the
direction of the motion of the Earth, must be the decrease of size of physical
body in the direction of motion.а They
both assumed that if ether - sufficiently dense material, then parallel ray
moves more slowly than perpendicular.а In
this case it passes smaller distance and therefore it achieves goal
simultaneously with the ray, which had passed in the perpendicular direction
larger distance with the larger speed. аLorenz further assumed that if a time for parallel
ray flowed more slowly in the necessary "correct" proportion, this
and would explain the impossibility to register changes in the different
season.
However, this
"correct proportion" as the explanation of the effect of Michelson
and Morley, was declared by the "devised explanation" and was
deflected.
The following explanation was made, of course, by Albert by Einstein in
his theory of relativity.а And his
explanation of the decrease of length and effects of a change in the time is
connected with existence of the fourth-dimension, which it named the
"space time", introduced by
What also as does decrease the longitudinal (in the
direction of the motion) sizes of bodies?а
In order to answer these
questions, we must first examine that which occurs, when atom is not
moved.а In this case we will explain that
precisely it changes during the motion of atom.а
In order to accomplish this task, let us examine the atomic structure of
hydrogen.а In accordance with the vortex
conception hydrogen atom consists of the three-dimensional hole, convex into
the space with the larger dimensionality (proton), and the three-dimensional hole,
convex from the multidimensional space (electron), and two vortexes of
three-dimensional space.а The first
vortex is passed from the electron into the proton in the substance of
three-dimensional space.а The second
vortex flows from the proton into the electron in the substance of
four-dimensional space.а These two flows
create the closed cycle of space in the fixed volume.а
Elementary particles and
directions of the flows of vortex are shown in Fig. 1.а
In Fig. 1, it is marked:а P - proton, e - electron.а The region
higher than broken line is three-dimensional space, and lower than broken lines
- fourth-dimensional (or fifth-dimensional and so forth) space.а The concept of multidimensional space is used
in order even if we assume that the whirlpool of vortex (C2) at first
penetrates the fourth-dimensional space, and then he uses this space
temporarily.
Three-dimensional space
Fourth-dimensional space
Fig. 1.а An atom model of hydrogen.
C1 and C2 - direction of the flows of the vortexes.
The rate velocity V of the flow of vortex, entering the elementary
particle, is equal to the rate of the flow of vortex, which emerges from
it.а The cross-sectional area аSа of
flow throughout the entire length of vortex аL аis
kept constant and therefore the volume of the flow of the vortex аW, which takes place in the space from one
particle to the another, i.e., entering and emerging from the hole, it can be
determined according to the following formula:
Single volume of the flow of the vortex:а
W = S V.
Earlier it was noted, that in order
to simplify all calculations and to make their lighter for the perception, we
will use basic qualities. A radius R of the first Bohr orbit of electron is
equal to 5.2917706 E-11 m. Let аus аaccept this parameter as the basic value of
the length аLа of the L bas = 5.2917706
E-11 m, and than we will obtain that linear measure (length of the flow of
vortex, distance, a radius, the length of a circle, etc.) in the basic
qualities аL = L / L bas
.
Thus, the atomic radius in the
basic qualities R = 1, therefore, the length of the flow of vortex in the basic
qualities is also equal to L = 1.
Further we take, the bases unitа S bas = (L bas )^{2} аfor the flow cross
section; therefore the cross-sectional area of the flow of vortex, led to аS = S / S bas = 1.
And finally the speed of light C =а
2.997924580 E+8 m/s, and, taking its value for the basic quality of a speed,
we will obtain that the rate of the velocity of vortex in the basic units isа Vv = 1.
The task of this work is the proof of the fact that the measurement of
atom are decreased at the speeds, close to the speed of light, and the orbit of
electron around the proton is unessential for the analysis.
Only position of electron in orbit at any moment of time is important
for our proof.а It is unessential, how
electron reached this position; this does not influence result.а If atom is found at rest or motion at a
velocity, insignificant in comparison with the speed of light, then the volume
of the space of the vortex between the proton and the electron in the basic
units W for any position of electron in its orbit is equal to one,
since W = S V = 1.
In the proposed hypothesis the volume of single flow both in the
three-dimensional and in the multidimensional space (W = L S), that takes place
inward or from within any particle, is accepted a priori as the constant.а This constant is, in our opinion, the amount
of electric force, and also perhaps by the forces, caused by strong, weak,
gravitational and by other interactions, caused by the flows of vortexes both
in the electron and in the proton, in their constant existence in the
space.а Since these interactions always
can be measured, they are independent from the units of measurement, and the
values of these interactions are always constants.а Consequently, the measured volume of the
space, which flows inside the particle, always one and the same, regardless of
the fact, in what frame of reference the measurement, occurs. This means, that
if the tester in the spacecraft shows, that the speed of light is constant,
then he can show that charges in the electrons and the protons in the ship
limits - also constant quantities.
3.2.2. A factors, which
influence a change in the volume of the flow of the vortex
Since both vortices created the circulating flow, moreover a constant
volume, the change in their lengths will lead to a change in their cross
section.а However, a change in the flow
cross section leads to a change in the volume of flow.а Consequently, so that the volume of flow
would remain constant, both at the entrance into the electron or the proton and
at the outputs from these particles, then, therefore, respectively change the
lengths of vortices.
However, when atom is not moved in the space, i.e., it is found at rest,
or motion at a velocity, insignificant (no relativistic) with respect to the
speed of light, then the lengths of vortices are equal to the "total"
radius of atom (established or measured on the Earth).
Consequently, the
following fundamental formulas (laws) of vortex conception are valid:а
W = V S = 1 , аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа(1)
W = L S =1 , ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа(2)
L / V = 1.ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(3)
Thus, in the proposed hypothesis the volume of vortex flow between the proton
and the electron always remains constant, regardless of the fact how it is
calculated.а Variable quantities they can
be only:а speed, cross-sectional area and the length of flow.
The following three
different systems of coordinates, important for further analysis, will note:
аа 1. The frame of reference is bonded with the
object from the multidimensional space.
ааа2. The frame of reference is bonded with the
spacecraft.
аа 3. The
frame of reference is bonded with the electron or the proton.
Consequently, if the hydrogen atom is located inside the spacecraft, and
the ship moves with a speed of аV, then
if we show as atom, and therefore all the remaining ship parts they change its
form, then we is not detected contradictions in our reasoningТs about the
space.а Therefore hydrogen atom for the
practical substantiation of present hypothesis should be observed of all three
frames of reference simultaneously.
No relativistic motion
with respect to the space ( V<<C )
Fig. 1 gives the abstract example to the atom model of hydrogen in the space
of the university.а If the reader, does
not consider it is correct, then, unfortunately another simple graphic
interpretations is not located and therefore one ought not to receive this
figure as the precise correspondence to space [ 11, p. 16 ].а This is the possibility to schematically
explain our reasoning.а We will further
consider that аC1 аis the velocity of the flow of vortex in the
three-dimensional space, and аC2 - the
rate of the flow of vortex in the fourth-dimensional (fifth-dimensional and so
on) space.
1. With respect to the frame of reference, bonded with the object from
the multidimensional space, the following condition is satisfied:а C1 = C2 = C.
2. With respect to the frame of reference, bonded with the spacecraft,
state of affairs changes.а An astronaut
cannot see any flow of vortex, and in this case he cannot measure the time of
motion in closed circuit of the flow of vortices.а However, at best, he can measure the time of
the reciprocating motion of the light between the mirrors in order to repeat
the experiment of Michelson - Morley in the limits of its spacecraft.а And it will again confirm that the speed of
light is still equal to C.
3. With respect to the frame of reference, bonded with the electron or
by proton is also observed the condition:а
C1 = C2 = C.
However, when atom is in motion with a near-light speed of V ≈ C,
the results of observations radically change.
A relativistic motion
with respect to the space ( V ≈ C ).
It is as before equivalent with respect to the frame of reference,
bonded with the object from the multidimensional space, and as before of the speed
of vortex flows:а C1 = C2 = C. аIn spite of, that all are in motion, nothing -
either proton or electron, not flow of vortex cannot move at the velocity,
greater than the speed of light.
With respect to the frame of reference, bonded with the spacecraft, the
state of affairs remains before.а This
occurs because, as this will be proved at the end of our consideration,
all motions in ship limits slow down because of the forces in the space,
especially during the motion with the near-light speed.а Thus, cosmonaut does not here find changes.
However, in the frame of reference, bonded directly with the electron or
the proton, the speeds of the motion of two vortex flows prove to be inadequate
(Fig. 2).
Thus, why under the identical conditions and the circumstances do appear
three different points of view?а This is
explained as follows.
With respect to the frame of reference, bonded with the object from the
multidimensional space, the values of the speed of vortex flows are as before
equivalent.а Despite the fact that these
two particles (proton and electron) move with a speed of аV,
nothing in this system moves more rapidly than light beam.
For example:а if any
"marker" could be placed into the point, which corresponds to the
flow discharge of vortex from the electron, then it would achieve proton more
rapidly, than with no relativistic velocity of the atom V << C, and not because
its speed is above, but most probably because the proton is moved to it
towards.а Even besides, that this
"marker" reaches proton more rapidly than this occurs during the no
relativistic motion of hydrogen atom, the actual rate of the flow of vortex
does not change:а the rate of the flow of
vortex does not as before exceed the speed of light.
Three-dimensional space
VELOCITY OF VORTEX INTO
THE PROTON = C1 + V
VELOCITY OF VORTEX INTO
THE ELECTRON = C2 - V
Fourth-dimensional space
Fig. 2.а An atom model of hydrogen
in the motion with velocityа V.
An adequate result will be obtained, also, with the "marker",
placed into the flow of the vortex, which ensues from proton.а Since, electron moves along its orbit far
from this "marker", and "marker" moves towards the electron,
more than time is required, so that the "marker" would reach the
surface of electron, in comparison with the fact, if atom was not moved.а Therefore, even in this case, one should
always remember that the flow of vortex still flows with the speed of light.
With respect to the frame of reference, bonded with the spacecraft, the
state of affairs remains before.
However, if the frame of reference, is bonded with the electron (or
proton), situation changes radically.а In
this case the electron is located in "relative rest".а Consequently, the flow of vortex, which flows
into the proton, now acquires the obvious speed, equal: C1 + V = C + V, and
simultaneously appears the obvious speed for the flow of vortex into the
electron, equal to C2 Ц V = C - V, since аC1 = C2 = C.
And therefore extremely important to understand, that when the atom is
in motion, nothing, any part of the atom, or its flow of vortex can have a
speed more than the speed of light. However, since the positions of these two
particles constantly change, for the observers within the limits of electron
and proton these two vortex flows enter and leave from the particles with the
different obvious speeds.а Consequently,
the paradox appears:а the volume of the
flow of the vortex, which flows into one hole, is not equal to the volume of
the flow, which ensues from another.а If
nothing it changed in the space, then the inexplicable situation would lead us into
error.а This would be analogous with the
presence of this capacity (barrel), where one cubic meter in second would flow
into it, and five cubic meters in the same second emerged outside, and in this
case liquid level in the barrel remained constant.
It is only method to overcome this contradiction:а lies in the fact that "to
redistribute" the volumes of the flows of vortices/eddies.а This is substantiated further as the concept
"duplicating" of the volume of flow.а
This is caused by the validity of the formulas (1 - 3), which express
the law of conservation of the volume of the flow of vortex.
3.2.3.а A calculation of the vortices during the
motion of the atom with a speed of V
Let us examine the motion of hydrogen atom in the space, schematically shown
in Fig. 2, and let us carry out the following calculations in the basic
qualities.
Let us assume that the speed of the motion of atom is equal to 0.866
from the speed of light, i.e., V = 0.866.а Further the "virtual" velocity а(C - V) аof the flow of vortex, entering the electron
is determined as follows:а V
in = 1 Ц 0.866 = 0.134, and the speed of flow at the output from the
electron (C + V) is equal: V out = 1 + 0.866 = 1.866.
For determining the cross sections of these flows we will use formula
(1), from which it follows that:а V
out S out = V in S in . Therefore
the correctly following relationship:
V out / V in = S in / S
outааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(4)
Let us further to find
the relation of the flow cross sections of vortex as follows:
S in / S out = 1.866 / 0.134 =
13.92537.
It should be noted that the flow cross section, which moves with the
virtual speed, equal to 1.866 speeds of light, in this case almost is 14 times
less than the flow cross section, which moves with velocity, by the equal to 0.134
speeds of light.
Thus, the proposed hypothesis like would enter the explicit
contradiction with the theory of relativity on the fact of exceeding the speed
of light.а However, this is erroneous!а
We have examined the motion of hydrogen atom at first with V << C,
and then instantly switched over to the condition: V ≈ C. аIt is known, that the achievement a speed V =
0.866 from the speed of light it is possible only under the condition for the
specific energy consumption in the space, i.e., the accomplishment of
work.а Therefore it is completely
naturally, in the structure of hydrogen atom and its surrounding space will wake
up the forces of nature, which will lead to the new steady state of hydrogen
atom and will show us, in what we strictly see paradox.
The purpose is one - study of the
laws of Universe, and, as far as possible, their simple and intelligible
explanation.
In accordance with the
formulas (1 - 3) let us carry out the following calculations.
Let us examine, what changes
occurred with the lengths of the flows of vortices with velocity V = 0.866
speeds of light.а In accordance with (2)
it is possible to obtain the following:
L in S in = L out S
out = 1.
And further, if we taking
into account relation (4), it is correct, that the lengths of the flows of
vortices will virtual change as follows:
L in = 1/ 1.866 = 0.535910, and
consequently:а L out = 1 / 0.134
= 7.462690.
And thus, the flow of vortex in the multidimensional space decreased its
length to equal to value 0.53591; it was reduced by other words almost in 2
times.а In the three-dimensional space
the flow of vortex increased its length to value of 7.46269; it was extended by
other words more than 7 times.
It is clear that, in the process of accelerating (dispersal) of hydrogen
atom to the speed the equal to 0.866 speeds of light, on the basis of this
hypothesis the following changes in the structure of atom model are
inevitable.а First, forces, after arising
in the multidimensional space, will act on electron (it 1836.10 times more
easily of proton) for the purpose of the decrease of a radius of its orbit due
to the forces, which arose in the multidimensional space, since the flow is
continuous and any vortex draws in itself physical objects [ 12, p. 414 ].а And these forces can be caused strong,
electrical, weak, by gravitational and other interactions, briefly, by the
inevitable reaction of space for reaching of the relativistic speed of
motion.а It is possible to assert that
only this force (forces) will begin to attract electron to the proton,
attempting to reduce a radius to the value, equal to LТ = 0.53591 (in the first approximation).а Further
we will refine this value, but physical cause is already obvious, and this is
the main purpose of this work.
In the second place, in the three-dimensional space forces also
unavoidably will arise.а The first, that
attempts to decrease the rate of vortex to the acceptable value, i.e., not are
more than the speed of light. аAnd the
second, that attempts to increase the flow cross section of vortex to the
value, which corresponds to the new steady state, everything in the same
reason:а to draw nearer - means to
decrease the length of the flow of vortex and to increase flow ааcrossа аsection ааinа аtheа аfirstа аapproximation, to the natural value,
approximately one SТ = 1 / LТ = 1/0.53591 = 1.866 in accordance
with formula (2).
One should explain that steady states in the space will be further
examined in this stage of the hypothesis.а
In this case we should be focused attention on the fact that the
parameters of the flows of vortices: S, V, and L
correspond to transitional values, i.e., unstable (excited), and intermediate,
or as it is said earlier, to possible values, which space is approached under
the action of its internal forces this caused by energy interactions during the
dispersal (acceleration) of the motion of hydrogen atom.а S, V , and L
аwe will assign to the parameters
of the flows of vortices (with the underlining) to potential values
during the stable motion of hydrogen atom with a steady relative speed of V.
Hence it follows that a substantial change in the parameters of the
flows of vortices will be located in accordance with the laws of their motions,
according to formulas (1 - 3).
Since, V out = ( 1 + V ), i.e., is not equal to
zero, then it is possible to divide both parts of equation (4) on V
out , but according to the hypothesis in question (see formula (1))
potential value V in аS
in = 1, then we obtain the following expression:
S out = ( V in S
in ) / V outа = 1 / V
out = 1 / ( 1 Ц V ).
The further obtained expression let us divide onа V in = 1 / ( 1 Ц V
); in this case we unambiguously exclude the possibility of equality V
= 1, i.e., V = C. аThan we take into
consideration, that (1
+ V
) (1 - V ) = (1 - V ²^{ }).
аTherefore we
obtain the following expression:
S out / V inа = 1 / V out V in = 1 / ( 1 Ц V
² ).
We can analogously
obtain the following relationship:
S in / V out = 1 /
V
out V in = 1 / ( 1 Ц V ² ).
On the basis of (3), and taking into account the fact, that аL inа = V in ,а and L out = V
out , we obtain:
L out / S in = 1 Ц V
² ,
L in / S out = 1 Ц
V
² .
Consequently, lowering the virtual (being unsteady, intermediate)
parameters of the flows of vortices, we obtain, that on the basis of formulas
(1 - 3) are valid the following ratios for the potential values of the
parameters of the flows of vortices in the space at uniform rectilinear motion
of physical objects with the relativistic speeds:
V in = (1 Ц V ² ) S
out ,ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(5)
V out = (1 Ц V ² ) S
in ,ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(6)
L in = (1 Ц V ² ) S
out ,ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(7)
L out = (1 Ц V ² ) S
in ,ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(8)
L in / V in =
1,аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(9)
L out / V out =
1ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(10)
Formulas (9 and 10) give us the possibility to reduce the number of
equations (5 - 8).а However, this should
not be made.а First, we do not know thus
far, what processes are passed at the joint of two spaces with different
dimensionality (three-dimensional and fourth-dimensional), and, in the second
place, the measurementslesness of relative units (basic) hides the dimensionality
(m/s, m, m², and others) of physical quantities, therefore, simplifying
mathematical expressions, it is possible to lose the physical sense of changes
in the space.
Hence it follows that a substantial change in the parameters of the
flows of vortices will be in complete agreement with the laws of their motions
at the relativistic speeds of objects, according to formulas (5 - 10).
In this case one ought not to forget about the flow parameters in the
first approximation, obtained earlier.
They are the physical base of the
tendency of perestroika of flows and elements of atom in the space.
In accordance with the formulas (5 - 8) cofactor (coefficient): (1 Ц V
² ) it relates to the flow cross section of vortex and is prevailing with
all its forms both at the entrances and at the flow discharges of
vortices.а Consequently, it is possible
to assume that in this case the cross section will change inversely
proportional this coefficient.а Let us focus
attention on the value of the first approximation of the flow cross section of
vortex.а Section of the cross flow of the
vortex it is proportional to the second degree (square to the length of flow).
But, since the length of the flow of vortices is found on the left side
of formulas (7 and 8), therefore, the lengths of the flows of vortexes and a
radius of orbit in the direction of the motion of atom will approach the
following stable state:
аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
аааа______
R = L = √ 1 Ц V
²
In accordance with formulas (9 and 10) the ratio of the length of the
flow of vortex to its speed is constant, and since in this case it has a
dimensionality of time (T), therefore, occurs the corresponding, but already
inversely scaling in the rate of flow of time.
Thus, the rate of flow of time changes, i.e., the duration of process, for
example, equal T˚, with V
<< C, it will now approach value equal:
аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
______
T = T˚ / √ 1 Ц V ²
Earlier was introduced concept "duplicating of the flows" of
vortices.а What it does indicate?а So that the formulas (5 - 10) would be
carried out, it is necessary to find the possibility of passage from the
intermediate (virtual, transitional) states to the real physical steady
parameters.
Consequently, the parameters of the flows of vortices, obtained in the
first approximation, must be corrected.а
After carrying out simple calculations with the use of results of first
approximation according to the formulas (5 - 8), and after taking into
consideration of formula (9 and 10), we will obtain that it is necessary the
use of certain "correct proportion", let us call its H (by the first name Lorenz).
Since, the right side of the formulas (5 - 8), contains coefficient,
equal to (1 Ц V ² ), deliberately smaller than one, the is
necessary certain increase in the cross-sectional area of the flow of vortex
and the adequate decrease of its length.
In this case, it is obvious, that it is necessary with the virtual
(being unsteady, transitional) parameters to carry out the following: V
in , V out , L in аand L out to divide on X, and S in , and S
out to multiply on X.
It should be noted that in this case will come out a whole series of the
coefficients of different caliber and only they are adequate for the parameters
L
in аand S in , but these
parameters exist nothing else but аL' and аS '.а
Consequently, first approximation obtains mathematical confirmation.
Thus, on the basis of
formulas (7 and 8) we obtain the following relationship:
L' / H = (1 Ц V ² ) S ' H
Further:
[ 1 / (1 Ц V )] / H = (1
Ц V
² ) (1 + V ) H ,ааааааааааааааааааааааааааа а(11)
where: L' = 1 / (1 + V ) = 1 / (1 + 0.866)
= 0.535910 - the first approximation of the length of flow,
ааааааа ааааSТ
= 1 / L' = 1 / [ 1 / (1 + V
)] = (1 +V ) = 1 + 0.866 = 1.866 - first approximation of the
flow cross section of vortex.
And finally from formula
(11) it is simple to obtain the value of Lorenz's coefficient:
ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
______
H = 1 / [(1 + V
) √ 1 Ц V ² ] = 1.071720аааааааааааааааааааааааа (12)
We further find the
steady parameters of the flows of vortices in accordance with (11):
L = L '
/ H = 0.53591 / 1.07172 = 0.50
S = S ' H = (1.866) (1.07172) = 2.0
Consequently, formulas (11 and 12) are the confirmation of the
fulfillment of the following potential values of the parameters in the atom of
hydrogen and flows of vortex in the direction of motion with constant speed (in
the basic qualities):
ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
аааа______
T = 1 / √ 1 Ц V ² ,ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа (13)
аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
ааа______
S = 1 / √ 1 Ц V ² ,ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа (14)
ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
______
R = √ 1 Ц V ² ,аа ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа(15)
ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
______
L = √ 1 Ц V ² ,ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(16)
ааааааа аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа______
Vv = √ 1 Ц V ² .ааааааааааааааааааа ааааааааааааааааааааааааа(17)
In accordance with the vortex conception the precise (exact) value of
the radius of atom (in the direction of the speed of its motion) will be equal to
√ (1 Ц 0.866 ²) = 0.50 in the basic qualities; therefore the length
of flow will be also equal to 0.50.а The velocity
of the flow of vortex will be equal to 0.50, i.e., two times it is less than
the speed of light and, in this case, it does not contain contradictions with
the theory of relativity.а The flow cross
sections of vortex in this case are equal to 2.0.
3.2.4.а An atomic radius during the motion with the
relativistic speed
Thus, it is established that during the motion with the near-light speed
all linear dimensions (lengths) of physical object decrease, i.e., they are
divided into the specific parameter, let us name its coefficient by
Einsteinа E. And, reduction will occur in complete agreement with formula
(16).а Hence it follows that with аV << 1 аcorrectly following:а L = 1.а The decrease of length occurs, thus, according
to the following expression:
аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа______
1 / E = √ 1 Ц V
² .
Therefore, the
coefficient of Einstein is equal:
ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
______
E = 1 / √ 1 Ц V
² .ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
(18)
In the atom model of hydrogen (Fig. 2) let us place in the center of the
orbit of electron the orthogonal coordinate system.а X-axis
is directed parallel of the motion V
of hydrogen atom, while Y-axis - it
is perpendicular to X-axis.
In accordance with that outlined above the equation of motion of
electron for the orbit around the proton, with V = 0 will represent the equation of a circle.а The equation of this circle (orbit of
electron) takes the following form in the basic qualities:
x² + y² = 1 .
And, the changes in the coordinates of electron are within the limits of
the open interval both for x and for y.а These intervals are equal to (-1, +1).а Interval is considered open, since hydrogen
atom, nevertheless cannot be located without the motion, i.e., in absolute rest
in the Universe.
Since during the motion of atom with the relativistic speed (V ≈ C),
a change in the x coordinate will be located in the closed interval
ааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
_______аааааааа _______
[ - √ (1 Ц V ²) , + √ (1 Ц V
²) ],
and coordinate y, also in closed the interval
[ -1,а +1 ],
since it is a priori accepted that hydrogen atom moves rectilinearly
and, in this case, there is no velocity component in the direction y.
Thus, the reduction of the coordinate of electron motion Xe in accordance with formula (18) will
occur in E of times.а Thus, taking into account, that in the
direction of the coordinate y of change they do not occur, the
equation of the trajectory of electron motion takes the following form:
(x / E ) ² + y ² = 1.
And further it is
possible to obtain:
аааааааааааааа аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа______
[ x / ( 1 / √ 1 Ц V ² ) ]² + y
² = 1.
This equation
corresponds to the equation of the ellipsis:
x ² / A
² + y ² / B ² =
1,
where A and B - semi axes of ellipsis.а
Let us show this.а It is possible
to obtain after simple conversions:
(Xe) ² / ( 1 Ц V
² ) + Ye² / 1 = 1,аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа а(19)
аааааааааааааааааааа ______
where: A = √ 1 Ц V ²а - semi axis along the X-axis (in the direction of the motion of hydrogen atom), B = 1 - semi axis along the Y-axis (orthogonally to the speed of
the motion of atom).
On the basis of formula (19), with V = 0.866, is obtained the
table of the values of radii (Re) of the orbit of electron
(in the basic qualities) in the dependence on angle ( α░) of a radius with
respect to the X-axis, i.e., the
velocity vector of hydrogen atom in the first quadrant of the coordinate
system.а The values of these parameters
are symmetrical relative to the coordinate axes.а And finally the electron moves along the trajectory
of ellipsis with semi axes 0.5 along the X-axis
even 1 along the Y-axis.
After simple conversions
it is possible to obtain the following relationships:
R ² e =а
[ 1 + ( tg α ) ^{2} ] / { [ 1 / ( 1 Ц V ^{2 }) ]
+ ( tg α ) ^{2} }
R ² e =а
[ 1 + ( tg α ) ^{2} ] / [ E ^{2} + ( tg α
) ^{2} ]
аα ░ |
10 |
20 |
30 |
40 |
50 |
60 |
70 |
80 |
85 |
R e |
0.506 |
0.524 |
0.555 |
0.602 |
0.688 |
0.756 |
0.860 |
0.958 |
0.989 |
We have examined in the Cartesian coordinate system the equations of
motion of electron around the proton in hydrogen atom.а It is shown that the trajectory of motion
passes over the canonical section, i.e., along the ellipsis.
The eccentricity (F) of this
ellipsis (and also the ordinate of the focus of ellipsis) will be equal:
аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
_______аааааа _________
F = √ B ² - A ² = √ 1 Ц 1 + V ²а = V = 0.866.
It should be noted that
However, it should be noted that Raney Descartes and its followers
considered everyone extended by physical, denying empty space.а An motion was examined and was described with
the aid of the concept "vortex" [ 8, p. 87 ].
It is know that strong interaction occurs with the distances of order 1E-15
m. In the basic qualities this it will compose near 2E-5.
It should be noted that according to the proposed vortex conception
hydrogen atom must in this case have a speed not less than 0.9999999998 from
the speed of light, i.e., the value equal to 2.997924599 E+8 m/s.
It is obviously; only then electron will approach up to the distance the
proton into the region of strong interaction.а
Let us assume that this is possible.а
However, it is established that the strong interaction of elementary
particles is not central and; therefore according to
Gravitational interaction, as a rule, are not taken into consideration by
contemporary physicists in the examination of the analogous processes [ 9, book
5, p. 319 ].
And however, there is a new theory
of electro-weak interactions (S. Weinberg, S. Glashaw and A. Salam - Nobel
laureates 1979), which can explain the action of forces in hydrogen atom.
The following conclusions are obvious from a mathematical point of
view.а At the relativistic speeds in the
direction of the speed of the motion of physical object occur the following changes
in the space within the limits of the selected model of physical object, in
particular, hydrogen atom and its hypothetically expressed structure and form
of existence, based on the vortex conception.а
It should be noted that the decrease of the linear dimensions of the
physical objects, which move with the near-light speed, will occur only in the
planes of the parallel to direction of motion.а
In the direction, perpendicular to motion, the changes do not occur.а Thus, for instance, moving ball will take the
form of ellipsoid with the axis, perpendicular to the velocity vector of motion
(certainly, if it does not revolve).
It is possible to assert that, in the first place, the rate of flow of time
slows down (formula 13).а In the second
place, the cross-sectional area of the flow of vortex increases (formula
14).а Thirdly, a radius of the orbit of
electron decreases (formula 15).а
Fourthly, the length of the flow of vortices decreases (formula
16).а And finally fifthly, the velocity of
the flow of vortex decreases (formula 17).
Analysis of the
experiment of Michelson - Morley
The explanation of the experiment of Michelson - Morley now becomes
obvious.а During the motion with any
speed, during the acceleration of motion occurs the decrease of the length of
the physical objects:а they actually are
compressed in the direction, parallel to the speed of motion.а This occurs in accordance with the proposed
hypothesis, named vortex conception.
The maintaining the constancy of
the single volume of the flow of vortex is the basic and only postulate of
theory.
Consequently, the measurement of the speed of light in the frame of
reference, which moves with the definite speed, for example, on the Earth,
contains the natural decrease of distances in the direction of the motion of
our planet, and therefore by any experiments cannot be determined its absolute
velocity with respect to the system, " which rests " in the space of
the Universe.
The use of a flow of light rays cannot ensure the proof of relative
motion of the Earth in the space in the experiment, since the flow of light is
passed along the way of the natural distances, determined by present theory.
Analysis of the periodic
law of D. I. Mendeleyev
The history of development the Universe, or but
more exactly its matters, which, in the first approximation, consists only of
atoms of chemical elements and vacuum. The atom of hydrogen there was is
considered earlier.
It is known the first firm element this tables
is an inert gas Helium. As always, we expect, that two electrons on the orbit
around nucleus Helium, and only two electrons. The nucleus of Helium has only
two protons. The radius of orbit for electrons is equal 1. In this instance we
shall not render concrete the parameters atomic orbital of electrons a Helium.
The areas of cross-section of flows of vortex
will conditionally are 0.5. We have two electrons on the first shell. This is
their natural and legal existence. The cross-section of vortex will be always equal
0.5 (basic units).
The following possible radius for second shell (orbital)
of electrons can be is 2 in basic units.
These elements are: Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, and
Ne.
The area of cross-section for the second orbit
increases in four times. These areas of cross-section will wholly enough for
free accommodation eight vortex flows.
Look 4 divide 0.5 = 8!
The following possible radius for shell of
electrons can be is 3 in basic units. These elements are: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S,
Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, and
Kr.
The area of cross-section for the 3-rd orbit
increases in 9 times. It is possible only maximum amount of electrons on this
orbit must be not more than 18.
9 divide 0.5 = 18!
The following possible radius for shell of electrons
can be is 4 in basic units. These elements are: K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe,
Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br, Kr, and so on.
The area of cross-section for the second orbit
increases in 16 times. It is possible maximum amount of electrons on this orbit
must be not more than 32.
16 divide 0.5 = 32!
Conclusions:
1. At the constant velocity into
the motions of object in the space occurs the decrease (reduction) of lengths
(overall sizes, radii) atoms and physical objects in the direction of motion it
is proportional to the coefficient:
аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
__________
√ 1 Ц ( V / C)
².
2. At the constant velocity into
the motions of object in the space occurs an increase in the duration of
physical processes, and also the time intervals between the events
(retarding/deceleration of the rate of flow of time) in the direction of motion
it is proportional to the following coefficient:а
аааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааааа
___________
1 / √ 1 Ц ( V / C)
².
3. The maximum amount of electrons
on orbital of atoms of chemical elements can not be more the following
importanceТs аа2, 8, 18, 32, and so on.
Absence of existence of ether in the space of the universe and A. A. Michelson
& E. W. Morley experiment (1887), and also the transformation of
coordinates and time in the space of J. F. Fitzgerald (1892), and H. A. Lorentz
(1904.), and further the conclusions of the special theory of relativity of
Albert Einstein (1905), and also the achievement of contemporary physicists are
the necessary and sufficient confirmation of the proposed vortex conception.
Separately it should be noted that the proposed hypothesis as a whole is
adequate to the known assumption of Russian Nobel prize winner (1958) on the
The periodic system of chemical
In the conclusion it should be noted that A. Ampere in 1820 expressed
the brilliant idea:а not the conductor,
along which flows the current, it becomes magnet, but vice versa magnet is the
totality of currents.а This was new view
on nature of electromagnetic phenomena.
References
1. аRucker, Rudy: The fourth dimension.
2. аAbbott, Edwin: Flatland,
3. аCondon, E. U.: The handbook of Physics, Second
edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., 1967.
4. аEisberg, Robert: Fundamentals of modern
physics, John Wiley and Sons, 1961.
5. аScarre, Chris: Smithsonian timelines of the
ancient world, Dorling Kindersley, Inc., 1993.
6. аDorthy Michelson Livingston: The master of
light. A biography of Albert A. Michelson, аа
7. а
8. аPhilosophical dictionary / edited byа Frolov
9. а
10. аKoltun, M. : World of physics: Scientific and
artistic literature,
11.а
12.а Large illustrated encyclopedia:а Science and the technology:Translation from
the English language -